The allegory – is, first of all, a certain expressive form, an expression form. The sense or concept in itself is insufficient for expression. Expressive life is always synthesis of two plans, one – the most external, obvious and another – internal, comprehending and meant. Expression is synthesis and identity internal and external, self-identical distinction internal and external. The allegory is life expressive.
causes and effects there corresponds the gipostazirovaniye, the hierarchy of mythological beings having systematically valuable value. That in the scientific analysis acts as similarity or other type of the relation, in mythology looks as identity, and to logical division into signs in mythology there corresponds division into parts. The myth usually combines in itself two aspects:
The myth is not neither the scheme, nor allegory, but a symbol. It is necessary to tell, however, that the symbolical layer in the myth can be very difficult. It is especially interesting because the same expressive form, depending on a way of a ratio with other semantic expressive and material forms, maybe a symbol, both the scheme, and allegory. Therefore the analysis of this myth has to open that in it there is a symbol that the scheme and that allegory and from what points of view.
Various forms of public consciousness and after final allocation from mythology continued to use the myth as "language", expanding and on new interpreting mythological symbols. In particular, in the XX century the appeal of some directions of literature to mythology is observed also consciously (J. Joyce, T. Mann, Zh. Kotto, etc.), and takes place as reconsideration of various traditional myths, and a formation of myths – creation of own poetic symbols.
The second school - anthropological, or evolyutsionistsky, - developed in Great Britain as a result of the first scientific steps of comparative ethnography. The mythology was built to animism, to the certain idea of soul arising at "savage" from reflections about
Under ideal life we will agree to understand not life the best, the absolute, vozvyshenneyshy, than life ordinary, but simply semantic life. Whether there is a myth abstract and ideal life? Of course, is not in any sense. The myth is not work or a subject of pure thought. The pure, abstract thought least of all participates in creation of the myth. Already Vundt well showed that the affective root as it is always expression of these or those vital and pressing needs and aspirations is the cornerstone of the myth. To create the myth, least of all it is necessary to use intellectual efforts. The myth – not ideal concept, and also not idea and not concept. It is life. For the mythical subject it is original life with all her hopes and fears, expectations and despair, with all its real daily occurrence and purely personal interest. The myth is not life ideal, but vitally felt and created, material reality and corporal, to animality corporal reality.
The myth – not the fairy tale. The fairy tale – fiction is also realized as fiction, carrying away the person dream of other reality. The myth identifies dream with reality. The fairy tale – the child of already later era. The myth – is more ancient. He is not reconciled with doubt. The person, creating him, as if carried out the absolute knowledge of truth. Who from Homer's contemporaries could doubt Zeus's reality? Who from ancient Indians would dare to challenge terrible Shiva's existence? The world of the myth was out of doubts.
Both poetic, and mythical life is life direct, not output. The image both in poetry, and mythology does not need neither any logical system, nor any science, philosophy or in general the theory. It – visually is also directly visible. Expression is given in live faces and persons and it is only necessary to look and see to understand.
The mythological attitude was expressed not only in narrations, but also in actions (ceremonies, dances). The myth and a ceremony in ancient cultures made known unity - world outlook, functional, structural, being as if two aspects of primitive culture - verbal and effective, "theoretical" and "practical".